En la mayoría de países de América Latina, los espacios de producción agro-industrial está concentrado en grandes haciendas ubicadas en las zonas planas donde el acceso al agua de riego es relativamente fácil. Por el contrario, la producción de alimentos para el consumo nacional suele darse en propiedades pequeñas, ubicadas en zonas con pendiente pronunciada donde el acceso al agua se dificulta. Paralelamente, la expansión de la agroindustria demanda más agua, que incrementa las inequidades territoriales ya existentes.Por supuesto, esta es también una confrontación entre la gran producción orientada a la industria y la exportación y la pequeña y mediana producción que satisface el consumo doméstico. Nuevos usuarios complejizan este panorama, como hidroeléctricas, industria extractiva, grandes proyectos urbanos, etc.
En este trabajo se busca estudiar la brecha étnica de ingresos en Chile para el periodo 1996-2013 y determinar cuánto de esta brecha puede deberse a discriminación, entendida como una subvaloración de las características de los indígenas respecto a los no indígenas, y cuánto al hecho de que los indígenas son excluidos al no tener representación en ciertas características relevantes para el mercado laboral. Para esto se utiliza la técnica de descomposición no-paramétrica de la brecha (Ñopo, 2008). Este método permite medir el componente discriminatorio al hacer un matching entre individuos de distinta etnia pero similares en cuanto a características personales y laborales. Además, permite calcular la distribución de la brecha y sus componentes a lo largo de distintos subgrupos.
This paper investigates whether internal migration has long-term effects on conditional convergence across functional territories in Mexico. We use an instrumental variable approach based on the predictions a gravity model of internal migration between pairs of territories. Alternatively, we use networks interacted with distance between territories as an exogenous estimate of internal migration inflows.
This paper investigates empirically the emigration decision of first-time internal migrants in Mexico for the period between 2002 and 2005, and focuses on the role of the characteristics of the place of origin in the decision to emigrate, controlling for initial individual characteristics of internal migrants. We use the rich data provided by the Mexican Family Life Survey and hierarchical modeling techniques. Consistent with previous empirical evidence, we find a pattern of positive selection of emigrants in terms of human capital (measured as level of schooling and with a cognitive abilities test score).
As climate change progresses and water supplies become increasingly unpredictable; world population grows; human diets change; and the bio-economy expands into new business spheres, competition for water intensifies both within the agricultural sector and among sectors.
Indigenous Peoples as a demographic are amongst the poorest and most marginalized on the planet. Many have been displaced and exist in territories where extreme conditions make sustainable economic development challenging, with infrastructure, water and energy costly and unstable. Often times, traditional ways of life are no longer able to get them out of the poverty which they face. Government programs to a large degree have proven ineffective and can serve to perpetuate the inequality and marginalization that persists. As a result, many communities have looked elsewhere for solutions. While the old paradigm in resource development at best did little to close the gap in territorial inequality of these marginalized communities, new tools are emerging that are developed through community participation, rooted in collaboration and empowerment. Resource development today more than ever before presents opportunities for both sides to enrich each other’s lives and that of the global collective.
Community Futures (CF) is a unique community-driven, economic development initiative designed to assist communities in Canada’s rural areas to develop and implement strategies for dealing with a changing economic environment. This program was established in 1985 as part of the federal government’s Canadian Jobs Strategy to mitigate the labour market adjustment needs in the country’s non-metropolitan areas.
Promoting better market access and market performance for smallholder agricultural producers and the provision of access to better quality and lower price food for the majority of the world’s population requires the strengthening of rural-urban linkages and putting ‘place-based development’ at the centre of policy and investment in food systems. Whilst traditional markets at the level of villages, towns and small and medium cities continue to be the entry point into the food system for the large majority of the world’s smallholders, profound, and in some regions rapid, changes are taking place in the food system from production to consumption. These changes have implications on local economic development within functional rural-urban spaces, on urban and rural livelihoods, and on food security and nutrition.
This paper is devoted to comprehensively analyze regional income disparities in China from 1978 to 2014. Since China began its reform and opening up, inter-provincial disparities have experienced a process of narrowing first and then expanding. But this expansive trend of inter-provincial income disparities has slowed down and began to decrease somewhat around 2000, and the income disparity between the regions has kept a narrowing trend since 2004. Using provincial economic growth data, we analyze the changes of China’s economic growth pattern since reform and opening up and investigate the main factors influencing regional economic growth and regional disparities
Fiscal decentralization as an instrument to reduce poverty is an open debate that still takes place with little and contradictory empirical evidence on whether or not it has served the poor. This paper analyses the effect of fiscal decentralization on multidimensional poverty in Colombia. We estimate the impact of municipalities’ own resources over the multidimensional poverty headcount ratio and the multidimensional poverty gap. An instrumental variable spatial autoregressive model with spatial autoregressive disturbances is implemented as empirical strategy to disentangle the causal effect of fiscal decentralization, while taking into account that multidimensional poverty exhibits strong spatial correlation among Colombian municipalities.
This document presents the main interventions and programmes of Prosperidad Social (Social Prosperity) in Colombia, aimed at overcoming poverty, using income and multidimensional measures on the part of the poorest and most vulnerable populations, and also the achievements and major challenges that this entity faces as an institution. To such effect, the present document starts with a brief description of the institution and of the governmental Social Inclusion and Reconciliation sector, in order to subsequently carry out a diagnosis of the poverty situation in the country, focusing on territorial differences that occur in Colombia, followed by the description of the institution’s main programmes and how these have helped to reduce poverty rates in the country, generating capabilities and skills to beneficiaries. Finally, this document depicts the challenges and commitments being made by the sector, to promote a minimum level of wellbeing for all citizens.
While the conventional wisdom in development economics tends to hold the view that agricultural growth facilitates diversification of rural economies (from mainly agricultural to rural nonfarm development), empirical evidence showing such a causal relationship appears to be relatively scarce. Furthermore, theoretical work in the past two decades demonstrates that agricultural growth and nonagricultural growth can be either positively or negatively related, depending on the extent of mobility of the goods and services and of the factors producing them. This paper revisits the question empirically in the context of rural Philippines.
Since the 1960s, the Republic of Korea has achieved a rapid economic growth by supplying industrial complexes and intensive development of a certain number of regions. However, in the process, some regions have come to experience relative economic stagnation and the gap between the regions have gradually widened. Therefore, the Korean government has pursued various policy measures as to promote regional equality and to enhance industrial competitiveness. Especially, from the 2000s, there have been the national projects such as development of “Innovation Cities” outside the Metropolitan areas and also the policies to promote the “Greater Economic Regions”.
The apartheid state had a direct impact on both territorial development and inequality in South Africa. The demise of apartheid coincided with economic globalisation and the establishment of the postapartheid state, the intention of the latter being to promote development and address inequality. This paper assesses the successes and the failures in this regard over the past two decades. Its point of departure is a contextualisation of post-apartheid regional policies within the international context and in the midst of global economic change.
Present day Kenya became a British colony at the conclusion of the Berlin Conference of 1884/1885. Initially a company, the Imperial British East African Company, administered the colony on behalf of the British government. The colonial state was to all intents and purposes not a developmental state. It adopted policies geared towards extracting as much resources from the people as it could without investing the same in the social and economic development of the indigenous people. The state spent its energies developing regions occupied by British colonial settlers. The result was that some regions of the country developed while others stagnated or experienced underdevelopment. While poor people are found in both the developed and the disadvantaged regions, the severity of poverty was harsher among the people in the disadvantaged regions.
The territorial dimensions of development have long been neglected in Africa. From the period of colonization to the independences, taking into account the spatial dimensions of development has played a minor part in the development of public policies. It took the fall of communism in 1989, the end of apartheid in 1994 and the emergence of democracy as a result in poor countries for new requirements to emerge based on the restructuring of traditional political spaces. There is currently in Africa a resurgence of a new geography illustrated by the shifting, varied and complex nature of development areas.
Due to the specific characteristics of its integration into the world economy over the last centuries, subSaharan Africa is facing huge spatial imbalances and territorial inequalities. Inherited from the artificial borders shaped by a late European colonization, the political fragmentation of the sub-continent was especially exacerbated by continuing the “rent system” based on the extraction of natural resources. Rent patterns benefited transit capital cities to the detriment of small towns and intermediary cities and resulted in very asymmetric urban structures.
Over 280,000 permanent and another 475,000 temporary foreign workers enter Canada each year. Until very recently, 75% of all migrants located to the three big cities: Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver, with the vast majority living in Toronto. In the past five years, however, that pattern has drastically changed. During that time, western Canada’s share of immigrants has increased by 62% since 2010. What further differentiates these migration patterns is that immigrants are increasingly less likely to move to large centres even in western Canada, instead many of them are moving to smaller rural communities in search of work.
Canada continues to experience geographic economic disparity between its urban and rural communities, coupled with a contracting rural population base. Despite efforts to enhance rural economic development there continues to be challenges within the country including infrastructure, in country migration and inability to attract new immigrants to rural settings, limited service delivery capacity, support for rural indigenous communities, and an aging population.
In this paper I argue that territorial disparities are mainly the consequence of structural and institutional conditions established a long time in the past, sometimes centuries ago. I further argue that because policies aimed at redressing territorial inequalities only address a very narrow range of (usually narrowly economic) variables, and do so in the same general way across large and diverse social, economic and geographical conditions, they largely fail to reach their goals.